Toddlers – Ages 2 to 3

Toddler

Ages 2 to 3

The Preschool Program integrates technology in the learning environment of students. Teachers guide the students through a variety of lessons in Sensory, Language Development, Music and Movement, Colors and Shapes, Letters and Numbers, Creative Art, and Daily Life Skills. This framework establishes a firm standards-based groundwork for kindergarten readiness.

Scope and Sequence

Receptive Language

  • Auditory Discrimination
  • Distinguishing between two sounds
  • Identifying the direction of a sound
  • Distinguishing the duration of sound (long, short)
  • Discriminating the volume of sound (loud, soft)
  • Discriminating the tempo of sound (fast, slow)
  • Identifying the pitch of sound (high, low)
  • Discriminating rhyming words
  • Matching familiar sounds with their sources
  • Imitating sounds (e.g. animal sounds)
  • Discrimination of sounds in words (hears difference in “hat” and “sat”)

Auditory Memory

  • Reciting and singing nursery rhymes and jingles
  • Retelling a story
  • Recalling (reciting or singing) the alphabet in sequence
  • Identifying similar sound (e.g. words that begin alike)
  • Supplying rhyming words
  • Identifying familiar sounds (kitchen sounds)
  • Rote counting to ten
  • Sequencing the days of the week (in a song)
  • Clapping a rhythmic pattern (e.g., short, short, short, or shot, long, short, long)
  • Following directions that increase in complexity (two or three commands at a time, gradually increasing to four)
Expressive Language

  • Naming Objects
    • Association (pairing the real object, and later a picture of the object, with the sound of the word by)
    • Reinforcement (repeating a given response because of a positive stimulus such as praise)
    • Imitation (attempting to voice the sounds initially voiced by a parent or teacher)
    • Elaboration (expanding a word into a complete sentence)

  • Showing and telling about personal possessions

  • Telling about personal experience

  • Discussing purposefully
    • Discussing pictures
    • Discussing unit topics
    • Discussing preparation for an excursion or other group activity
    • Evaluating a group project or experience
    • Discussing stories and books

  • Dramatizing poems, action rhymes, and stories
    • Reciting favorite nursery rhymes, action rhymes, and poems
    • Retelling favorite stories
    • Supplying endings for simple stories
    • Using puppets to tell or retell stories
    • Experiencing choral reading (repetitious phrases in rhymes)
    • Pantomiming and acting out rhymes and simple stories
    • Pantomiming and acting out what they see in a picture
Visual Discrimination

  • Matching pictures and real Objects
  • Identifying basic shapes
  • Identifying basic colors and color associated with common ojbects
  • Identifying patterns that employ shapes, colors, and letters in sequential order.
  • Classifying objects according to the following common traits: color, size, shape, texture, pattern.
  • Identifying spatial relationship (inside, outside, over, under, top, bottom, etc.)
  • Identifying spatial relationships indicated by pictures.
  • Identifying emotions in illustrations (e.g., sad, happy)
  • Matching alphabets
  • Recognizing the uppercase alphabet
  • Recognizing own name in upper-case and lower-case letters.
Visual Memory

  • Recalling visual details – what is missing, proper placement of table setting
  • Recalling visual details from a story or a field trip

Visual Closure
  • Perceiving objects in incomplete forms – board puzzles, shadow silhouette pictures, hidden pictures, sequencing patterns
  • Completing partially drawn pictures
  • Identifying objects by sight

  • Expanding vocabulary and meaning

  • Perceiving spatial relationships

  • Relating picture of an auditory signal

  • Listening to and following verbal directions

  • Using context clues for word meaning

  • Reading pictures
    • Noticing details
    • Identifying characters and actions
    • Inferring motives, feelings and conversations of characters
    • Answering thought-provoking questions
    • Anticipating outcomes
  • Listening to recall facts
    • Main events of a story or poem
    • Sequence events of a story or a poem
    • Details of story
    • Specific information in story (who, what, where, when, why and how)
    • Cause and effect relationships

  • Listening in order to suggest titles for a story or poem

  • Reading and arranging sequence pictures

  • Listening in order to categorize

  • Distinguishing fact and fantasy
  • Building a positive attitude towards books

  • Associating spoken words with printed books(print awareness)

  • Demonstrating left to right progression

  • Demonstrating proper care of books(library corner)

  • Demonstrating familiarity with book format:left to right, top to bottom, cover and title
  • Comprehending facts and details

  • Associating spoken words with printed books(print awareness)

  • Interpreting pictures

  • Dictating sentences about illustrations or experiences
  • Classification – arranging and sorting objects into two groups according to a definite concept, shared characteristic, or plan (color, shape, size, pople, animals, plants, toys, water animals, land animals, etc.)

  • Association – selecting or matching according to relationship or function (e.g., hammer with carpenter)

  • Picture group – recognizing which object does not go in a group of three items(doll, wagon, apple)
  • Grouping three objects together on the basis of a characteristic or principle (e.g., clothing – shirt, pants, dress; toys – ball, top, doll)

  • Pattern sequencing – observing and arranging objects according to an established pattern (e.g., smallest to largest)

  • Part-Whole relationship – relating parts of an object to the object itself (e.g., tail to animal, pedal to bicycle)

  • Time Sequencing (arranging two to three pictured events in proper sequence)
Skills

  • Singing tone games and songs
  • Moving action songs, singing games, axial and locomotor activities to rhythm of music
  • Playing rhythm band instruments
  • Listening – song recognition, concept discrimination, music appreciation
  • Composing – new words to familiar melody
Concepts

  • Duration (long or short tomes)
  • Pitch (high or low tones)
  • Dynamics (loud or soft tones)
  • Rhythms (fast or slow)
Numbers and Numerals

  • Matching numerals
  • Naming and tracing numerals with fingers
  • Matching numbers(group or sets of objects one through five)
  • Recognizing numbers and numerals 1-6 for threes, 1-10 for fours
  • Recognizing order: before, after, between, first, next, last
  • Recognizing ordinal concepts first through third for threes, first through fifth for four
  • Counting by ones to ten for threes, one to twenty for fours
  • Developing vocabulary of positional words (top, bottom, over, under, between, in, on)
  • Dividing informally by sharing cookies
Geometry

  • Matching shapes (circle, square, triangle, rectangle)
  • Recognizing geometric shapes; circle, square, triangle; their differences, similarities, and sizes
  • Matching simple shape patterns (circle, square, circle, square sequence)
  • Recognizing half of shape (e.g., using shape cutters for bread; then cutting in half)

Measurement

  • Identifying taller, shorter, heavier, longer, same size
  • Using vocabulary of time
    • day and night
    • morning and afternoon
    • today and tomorrow
    • seasons
    • clock
    • calendar
    • thermometer -cold/hot
Unit approach to curriculum based on topics of interest to young child-
  • season
  • holidays
  • home
  • animals
Theme content for teaching of all skills
Gross Motor Skills

  • Types Of movement
    • Locomotor(crawling, walking,running jumping, hopping, etc)
    • Axial or non-locomotor(bemdomg stretching, pushing, pulling, swaying, stooping, twisting, etc)
    • Manipulative(throwing, catching ball, with both hands against chest, kicking)

  • Where we move
    • Directionality, literally-sidedness, space
    • Demonstration of the ability to relate himself to other objects
    • Tell whether he is near/far, behind/infront of/to the side of
    • Distinguish and point out the top and bottom of himself

  • How we move
    • Speed
    • Force
    • Space
    • Control

  • What we can do
    • Catch a ball with both hands against chest
    • Throw a ball overhand with accuracy from four to six feet
    • Throw a beanbag at a target five feet away
    • Clap with music
    • Walk on the balance beam six feet
    • Climb the slide and slide down; climb, alternating feet, and holding on to trail
    • Hop on one foot two or both feet
    • Tiptoe
    • Jump three jumps with both feet
    • Stand on one foot and balance
    • Run freely
Fine-Motor Skills

  • Definition – small muscles or manipulative skills such as finger dexterity, wrist flexibility, arm and hand steadiness and finger speed
  • Readiness Aspects
    • Manipulative: Putting together six to seven piece puzzles, putting pegs in pegboard, stringing at least four half-inch beads, holding crayons and brush with fingers rather than fist, lacing, buttoning a sequence of holes, screwing and unscrewing lids, buttoning own clothes, hammering pound toy accurately
    • Art activities: Drawing, painting, cutting pasting with index finger, making balls and snakes with clay
  • Pre-writing activities
    • Path tracing and tracking (lines and shapes)
    • Connecting dots
    • Drawing lines
    • Tracking dotted lines
    • Drawing shapes
    • Completing figures
    • Finger tracing numerals and uppercase letters
    • Finger tracing one’s own name for threes and fours
    • Tracking one’s own name for fours

Games

  • Provide an emphasis on maximum participation for each child; games in which all the children actively participate all or most of the time are essential
  • Games of exclusion used sparingly (e.g., “It” and tag games)